Human Error in Procedure Following

A great deal of work goes into making operating procedures accurate, but a procedure that is accurately written may be implemented incorrectly.

Studies suggest that humans conducting simple, mundane tasks make an error roughly 1% of the time. Error rates for complex tasks are much higher. Some procedures are more error-prone than others. It is incumbent upon us to write procedures that are not only accurate, but that are likely to be implemented without error.

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Axial Mixing in Pipe Displacement

It is frequently necessary to displace the contents of a pipeline or umbilical tube (fluid B) with another fluid (fluid A). If we don’t use a pig to separate the liquids, there will be mixing at the interface (axial mixing). The mixing zone requires us to over flush the line to effectively remove fluid B from the line. Below, we address a method of calculating the length of the mixing zone in order to determine the effective overflush requirement for a given pipeline or umbilical tube.

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The Different Skill Sets Between Construction & Commissioning

Commissioning can be defined as the group of dynamic and energized checks / tests to be carried out in order to ensure that the installation has been constructed to satisfactory standards and is ready for start-up. The primary goal of commissioning is to hand-over an asset to the operating authority that is proven to be clean, safe, functional, and operable to the design performance criteria. As some of the steps and activities involved with this commissioning effort may be potentially dangerous, it is of utmost importance for the commissioning management team to plan and perform this work in the safest manner possible as to avoid any damage to people or assets.

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